What is ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) material? Learn all you need to know about ABS plastic: basics, properties, material, application, and more.
What is ABS Plastic?
ABS is acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. ABS is widely used in the automotive Industry. It has good impact resistance, rigidity and toughness. It also chemical resistance to some extent when compared with other common polymers. Apart from being used for mechanical purposes it is also used for electrical purposes. It can be 3D Printed using FDM Technology. ABS is part of the thermoplastic polymers family, constituting a commonly used thermoplastic polymer. True to its name, ABS is derived from Acrylonitrile, Butadiene, and Styrene polymers. This material finds widespread use in personal or household 3D printing, primarily employing FDM or FFF 3D printers. Its popularity in this context stems from its ease of use with desktop 3D printers and commendable material properties. In the following sections, we will explore the various aspects of ABS, including its properties, applications, and both advantages and disadvantages.
Properties of ABS Plastic
ABS, or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, is a lightweight polymer renowned for its commendable impact strength, abrasion resistance, and cost-effectiveness. Furthermore, ABS polymers exhibit resilience to various chemical formulations. Notably, ABS plastic features a glass transition temperature of 105°C (221°F), rendering it particularly suitable for applications in relatively safe and user-friendly machinery, with an emphasis on household appliance safety.
While ABS material demonstrates a low melting point, limiting its suitability for high-temperature environments, this characteristic proves advantageous in machining processes. The material's low melting point facilitates ease of manipulation, making it well-suited for utilization in desktop 3D printers or during injection molding procedures.
Benefit's of ABS Materials
The properties of ABS are diverse, encompassing excellent impact resistance and structural stiffness. Its notable attributes include resistance to both high and low temperatures, as well as exceptional electrical insulation properties.
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) finds application in 3D FDM or FFF printers, typically in the form of a lengthy filament wound around a spool. Operating these 3D printers is relatively straightforward: the ABS filament is guided into an extrusion head or extruder, which heats the plastic to its melting point, transforming it into a liquefied state. Once liquefied, the material is deposited layer by layer onto a printing platform, with or without heating. This uncomplicated manufacturing process makes the production of plastic items remarkably easy.
One notable advantage of this additive manufacturing technique is its cost-effectiveness. The expiration of certain FDM technology patents in 2009 led to a significant reduction in the cost of 3D printing with ABS. Entry-level printers are now available at prices ranging from a few hundred to several thousand euros. Additionally, plastic materials, including ABS filament, are affordable, with prices often falling below €50 per kg. Utilizing ABS in your production process could contribute to lowering overall production costs.
As a result of these economic factors, the combination of ABS polymer and 3D FDM/FFF printers has gained popularity across various applications. The advantageous physical properties of ABS, such as impact resistance, tensile strength, stiffness, and heat deflection temperature, make it a preferred choice for mechanical and electrical purposes.
Despite its benefits, ABS does come with some drawbacks. Its low melting point, while facilitating ease of use with desktop 3D printers and injection molding processes, renders it unsuitable for high-heat environments. Moreover, ABS exhibits poor weathering resistance, limited resistance to solvents, and is not recommended for use in the food industry. However, its chemical resistance, mechanical properties, good surface quality, flame-retardant nature, and ease of post-processing through gluing and painting offer ample opportunities for customization in various applications.
Application of ABS Material
ABS plastic finds versatile applications in plastic manufacturing. Its high rigidity makes it suitable for crafting toys like Lego or Kre-O bricks. Additionally, ABS is employed in fabricating enclosures for electrical or electronic assemblies, sports equipment, automotive parts, and medical devices. This material is ideal for producing low-cost prototypes and architectural models for engineering and research departments. Moreover, ABS is utilized in the creation of affordable medical prostheses and material handling equipment. The broad range of applications highlights the effectiveness of ABS in manufacturing various plastic end-products.
Physical and Mechanical Properties of ABS
* The above properties may be subject to change depending upon the material grade availability.