What is PLA (polylactic-acid) material? Learn all you need to know about PLA plastic: basics, application, advantages, properties, uses, and more.
Polylactic acid, commonly known as PLA, is a type of plastic material used in 3D printing. It's a popular choice among 3D printing enthusiasts and professionals because it's easy to work with and environmentally friendly. Here's a simple explanation for your website content:
PLA, short for Polylactic Acid, is a special kind of plastic often used in 3D printing. It's favored by many because it's user-friendly and eco-friendly. PLA is derived from renewable resources like cornstarch and sugarcane, making it a more sustainable option for creating 3D-printed objects. It's a great choice for beginners and experts alike due to its ease of use and versatility in crafting a wide variety of items.
PLA, derived from renewable resources like corn starch or sugarcane, stands out as a biodegradable and environmentally friendly thermoplastic. Its eco-conscious origins make it a standout choice for those seeking sustainable alternatives in the world of materials science.
Biodegradability: PLA is compostable, breaking down naturally over time and leaving behind minimal environmental impact.
Versatility: This material boasts a wide range of applications, from 3D printing filaments to packaging materials and disposable cutlery.
Ease of Use: PLA is popular among 3D printing enthusiasts due to its low printing temperature, making it compatible with a variety of printers.
3D Printing: PLA's popularity in 3D printing stems from its ease of use, vibrant color options, and ability to produce detailed and precise prints. From prototyping to intricate designs, PLA has become a staple in the 3D printing community.
Packaging: Given its biodegradable nature, PLA is increasingly being used in packaging materials, offering a sustainable alternative to traditional plastics.
Disposable Products: PLA's versatility extends to the production of disposable cutlery, plates, and cups, providing an eco-friendly solution for single-use items.
Medical Applications: In the medical field, PLA is utilized for bioresorbable implants, showcasing its compatibility with the human body and its potential to revolutionize medical device manufacturing.
Applications of PLA
How Is PLA Made?
Although this transformation may not occur directly before your eyes, it is valuable to understand the production of a filament or material. Unlike numerous plastics that originate from refined crude oil, PLA is crafted from plant-derived sources like corn starch and sugarcane.
Firstly, the raw natural material, such as corn, undergoes wet milling to isolate and separate the plant's starch. After this extraction, the starch undergoes a mixing and heating process with enzymes and other chemicals to release dextrose (D-glucose), a type of sugar. Subsequently, the dextrose undergoes fermentation, leading to the production of lactic acid monomers, the primary component of polylactic acid (PLA), as indicated by the name.
The lactic acid can be transformed into PLA material through two main processes. In the first method, the lactic acid is condensed into a lactide, followed by a polymerization process. Alternatively, the lactic acid can undergo a condensation process directly. The former approach is more prevalent, involving the binding of molecules by introducing various catalysts and applying heat.
After processing PLA, the plastic is granulated and marketed as a raw material. In the production of PLA filament, manufacturers initially blend PLA pellets with other additives to enhance properties like color, heat resistance, or strength.
The resulting mixture is fed into a specialized filament extruder, where the grains are melted and then cooled into a stringed form at a specific diameter, typically 1.75 or 2.85 mm. Subsequently, the formed plastic is wound around a spool, packaged, and dispatched worldwide.
When PLA is utilized in applications beyond filament production, the process remains comparable, with variations in the specific form based on the intended end product.
Where It's Used
PLA, the favored material in 3D printing, extends its utility beyond this realm:
Food Packaging: PLA, being non-toxic and potentially food-safe, finds application in food packaging. Its minimal interaction with chemicals and liquids ensures food safety. Notably, Nature Works successfully employed PLA in creating food-safe packaging components.
Medical Applications: Owing to its non-toxic nature, PLA is employed in the medical sector. Components like binding screws and plates for bone fixation devices are made from PLA.
Prototyping: PLA is a preferred material for prototyping, often facilitated through 3D printing. Its ease of printing, cost-effectiveness, and compatibility with any FDM 3D printer make it a popular choice for bringing ideas to life.
Structural Uses: Despite its brittleness, PLA is used in construction for various purposes, including carpet fibers and insulation foam. Additionally, it finds application in furnishing items not subjected to significant physical stress.
Textiles: PLA contributes to textile production due to its breathable nature, lightweight, and other desirable properties. Although not the primary choice in the textile industry, PLA offers eco-friendly alternatives.
Cosmetics Packaging: PLA gains traction in the cosmetics industry as an eco-friendly packaging alternative, addressing concerns related to plastic waste and promoting the use of all-natural sources.
you know the industries where PLA is most used, below are a few ways that PLA components are produced:
3D Printing: FDM 3D printing is a prevalent method for producing PLA parts. PLA's easy printability, low temperature requirements, and compatibility with various 3D printers make it a versatile choice.
Injection Molding: Injection molding, a common method for plastic part manufacturing, is applicable to PLA. Although ABS is more typical in injection molding, PLA can be used, albeit less frequently, due to its lower crystallization rate.
Casting and Other Methods: Casting, similar to injection molding but utilizing gravity for part formation, is one of the methods employed for PLA. Thermoforming and other related techniques also exist. While not extensively used for PLA parts, these methods find application in specific industries.
PLA, designed primarily for 3D printing, distinguishes itself from other plastics like ABS or polycarbonate, which serve alternative purposes. Its exceptional printing performance can be attributed to several key factors.
Firstly, PLA eliminates the need for a heated bed, enclosure, or direct drive extruder, making the associated printing equipment cost-effective, often below $100. In contrast, materials like ABS, PETG, and TPU require at least one of these components to achieve high-quality prints.
Secondly, PLA enjoys widespread availability, with the consumer 3D printing industry ensuring easy online access to PLA filament at an affordable starting price of around $20 per kilogram. In comparison, alternatives like PETG come at a slightly higher cost and offer fewer choices.
Thirdly, PLA exhibits a high tolerance for varying print settings (within reasonable limits), streamlining the printing process without the need for extensive testing to perfect slicer configurations. Default slicer profiles typically yield satisfactory results, and minimal adjustments can further enhance print quality. Conversely, ABS, PETG, and TPU are sensitive to slicer settings, requiring delicate tuning for optimal prints.
Lastly, PLA emerges as a frontrunner in the pursuit of eco-conscious alternatives. From 3D printing enthusiasts to manufacturers and environmental advocates, PLA offers a compelling solution for those seeking innovation without compromising on environmental responsibility. More the possibilities of PLA, where creativity meets sustainability.
Physical and Mechanical Properties of PLA
* The above properties may be subject to change depending upon the material grade availability.